The excellent Howard Friedman of Religion Clause writes today that the Census Bureau has decided that the upcoming 2010 Census will not count Mormon missionaries who are living overseas. This was a big issue for the State of Utah, which narrowly missed gaining an extra congressional seat in 2000. Instead, the seat went to North Carolina, which has several military bases. Military service members living in other countries are counted in the census, but missionaries and other U.S. citizens living abroad are not. There are an estimated 11,000 Mormon missionaries from Utah that are living overseas. Utah challenged the census methods in a 2002 Supreme Court case, Utah v. Evans, but was unsuccessful.
The current Census Bureau policy counts military service members, federal employees, and citizens on merchant vessels. Other groups of U.S. citizens living abroad are not counted. Representative Bob Bishop (R-Utah) has opposed the policy as unfair an inaccurate. The most recent challenge to Census policies does not contest the counting of military members or federal employees, but instead argued that other groups (such as Mormon missionaries) should also be counted. I actually think this argument has some merit, particularly since the Census Bureau currently counts people on merchant vessels. Military service members and federal employees are serving their country, and may therefore be entitled to special treatment. But how is a crew member on a merchant vessel different from a missionary or a businessperson or a Peace Corp volunteer living abroad? The Census Bureau responds to these criticisms that they have found no feasible way to accurately count every American overseas.
There was a brief attempt earlier this year to change Census policies through congressional act, but the bill (S.160) (PDF) failed in the House when members of Congress attempted to use the bill as a vehicle to invalidate D.C.’s firearm restrictions.
Religion Clause: 2010 Census Again Will Not Count Overseas Mormon Missionaries
Salt Lake Tribune: Census count to exclude overseas missionaries—again
U.S. Census Bureau: Issues of Counting Americans Overseas in Future Censuses
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